Selected Anthropological Facts (Anthro 001, Intro Human to Evolution)

by B.J. on 10/19/2003 12:02:00 AM 0 comments Print this post

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In preparation for the midterm (and since I'm the only one in the world who visits this site everyday) I'm going to post random Anthro shit:

[Fixity of Species Folk]

Lyell: (???)

1) Uniformitarianism: The geological processes of the past occur today.
2) "Deep Time"
3) Principles of Geology


1) Classification (Systema Naturae)
-Identifies by physical traits
2) Uses genus (morphology) and species (whether they can breed)


1) Catastrophism: Landscape is the way it is because of violent outbursts
2) Zoology

[External Environment Influencing Species Folk]


1) External environment changing species, but no species giving rise to another
2) Broke down age of earth through cooling of Earth


1) Acquired Characteristics: ex/ giraffes stretching their necks
2) 1st to explain how and why things change in environment and evolutionary process
3) Coins biology

[Mendel's Contributions: Establishing the rules of discrete inheritance]

1) Law of Segregation: Genes occur in pairs. During gamete production, members of each gene pair seperate, so that each gamete contains a member of each pair. During fertilization, the full number of chromosomes are restored, and the members of gene pairs are reunited.

2) Dominance and Recessiveness

3) Independent Assortment: Distribution of one pair of alleles into gametes doesn't influence the distribution of another pair. The genes controlling different traits are inherited independently.

[Steps of Protein Synthesis]

1) RNA forms
2) Transcription: mRNA copies DNA code
3) mRNA goes to Ribosome
4) Translation: tRNA molecules carry amino acid and match with codons.

DNA provides the template because is it is the sequence of DNA bases (a gene) that ultimately determines the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.

[Hardy-Weinberg Formula]

Predicts the distribution of genes in populations assuming:

1) Mating is random
2) Infinitely large population with no sampling error
3) No evolution

[Modern Synthesis]

A comprehensive explanation of organic evolution incorporating Natural Selection and Mutation, defining it from a modern perspective in two stages:

1) Production and redistribution of "variation"
2) Natural Selection on this "variation."

4 Forces of Evolution:
1) Mutation - A change in DNA

2) Natural Selection - The genetic change or changes in a population due to differential reproductive success

3) Genetic Drift - Evolutionary changes; changes in allele frequences, produced by random factors as a result of small population size.

4) Genetic Flow - Exchange of genes between populations

Phyletic Gradualism - Evolution is a slow process with gradual transformation of one population into another which: a) involves most or all of the ancestral population and b) occurs over most of a species' geographic range.

Punctuated Equilibrium - Speciation occurs quickly with little change for long periods of time. The jumps occur when a beneficial combo reaches a certain threshold percentage.

[Reproductive Isolation]

All genetic mechanisms that prevent or limit gene flow between populations. Stuffs interbreeding. There are 2 kinds of these mechanisms: prezygotic and postzygotic.

Prezygotic: prevents fertilization and development of a zygote.
1) Temporal isolation - The mates may reproduce at different rates
2) Behavioral isolation - Different courtship patterns
3) Mechanical isolation - Intercourse cannot happen

Postzygotic: causes bad stuff to happen after birth
1) Zygotic mortality - Fetus dies
2) Hybrid inviability - Causes defects in offspring or does not live
3) Hybrid Sterility - Causes the offspring to be sterile

[Molecular Evolution vs. Morphology]

Molecular Evolution:
1) Uses direct information
2) Allows quantifiable, replicable studies
3) Appears regularly through time
4) Uninfluenced by significance convergence in form

Morphological Evolution:
1) Indirect information on genotypes
2) Depends on analysis of observed traits
3) Variable in pace of change
4) Subjective in choice of traits

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